Messenger endeavor made the Mecca either secretly or overt lasted for 13 years. The longer the obstacles increasingly so God Provide fertile place for the da’wah Medina. But to build a nation wide as the ambassador corners of the world Some Milestones of the Hijrah of Prophet Mohammed to Medina
Spread the news about a group of incoming Islamnya population Yatsrib (Medina), make unbelievers Quraishi increase their pressure against believers in Makkah.
Then the Prophet said. Mukminin ordered people to migration to the city of Medina. They soon leave for the Medina secretly, in order not to face the enemy. However, Umar ibn Khattab had first announced the plan to go to the refugee to the unbelievers Makkah. He cried, “Who among you is willing to separate with his mother, please hadang I stop tomorrow in the valley, will visit the morning I fled.” No one dare to intercept Umar.
After a p, which fled to Medina was greeted well and get the honor Yastrib population from satisfactory, bermusyawarahlah people disbelieve in Darun Nadwah Quraishi. They were taken to formulate ways to kill Rasululah said. is known not depart with a group of friends. Meeting decided to collect a murderer from the nomadic tribe to kill the Prophet said. together. This is, the big family of the Prophet (Banu Manaf) will not dare to fight against all the tribes that have been mengu ¬ tus algojonya each. Soon the only option that may be taken by Banu Manaf is willing accept blood money (fines murder) of the Prophet terbunuhnya. With this decision be implemented immediately and the executioner had gathered around the house saw the Prophet. They receive instructions: “Remove the Koran from his home and pengal directly with the Indonesian and Chinese culture pedangmu!”
In the evening blockade is the Prophet of Allah. do not sleep. To his niece / nephew, Ali pleased, he ordered two things: first, to sleep (lie) in bed Prophet and, second, give back all the people of Makkah points property in the hands of Allah. to the owner.
Prophet out of the house without known by one of the executioners who besiege his home since dusk. The Prophet said. go to the house of Abu Bakr who has prepared two tunggangan (vehicle) and then immediately leave. Abu Bakr Abdullah bin rent Uraiqith Ad-Daily to show an unusual way to Medina.
Messenger and Abu Bakr departs on Thursday 1st Rabi’ul Awwal fifth sixty three years from the birth of Prophet said. Only Ali Abu Bakr and family know that the departure of the Prophet of Allah. Abu Bakr and night to Yatsib. Previous two children Abu Bakr, she and Asthma, have adequate supplies to prepare for the trip. Then the Prophet said. Abu Bakr, is departing with pilot Medina-track roads to Yemen to the Cave of Tsur. Prophet and Abu Bakr stop there and bookmark the road was re secepatniya to convey secret messages to her sons Abu Bakr Abdullah.
Three nights ever warn him. and Abu Bakar hiding in the caves. Every night they are accompanied by Abdullah bin Abu Bakr, who act as observers situation and the information.
Escape of the Prophet of Allah. from the strict siege that make the Quraish bustle search. Makkah-Medina road track. But they failed to find the Prophet said. Then they browse the Yemen-Medina road. They suspect the Prophet certainly hiding in the cave Tsur. By tracking the team there, but bingungnya when they see the mouth of the cave is closed cobweb and bunung nest. That there is no sign of the entrance to the cave in it. They can not see what is in the cave, but who in the group can clearly see the outside. That time, Abu Bakr was very concerned about the safety of the Prophet. The Prophet said, “O Abu Bakr, both of us and this is Allah the third.”
The infidel Quraish announced to the whole nomadic tribe, “Anyone who can surrender ¬ Kant and i Muhammad (Abu Bakr) to our life or death, the prize will be given to the most valuable.” Arise Suraqah bin Ja’syam seek and chase the Prophet hope will become a tycoon in a short time.
Although the distance between the Cave of the Prophet with a group Tsur have so far, but it Suraqah can menyusulnya. When it is so close, suddenly the horse tersungkurlah be Suraqah, while the swords that have been diayunkan to the Prophet remain naked in his hand. Three times he pedangnya flick to the body of the Prophet, but in seconds is also Yes, three times, so I terlaksanalah The purpose jahatnya. Then he pedangnya scabbard covered in awe and sure, he is faced with a prophet who became the messenger of Allah. He was to please the Prophet willing to help raise Yes, that can not be built because his feet sink into the sand. After fed by the Prophet, he requested that the Prophet promised to give a prize ring greatness kings. The Prophet said, “OK.”
Then go back to Makkah with Suraqah pretend not find someone and never experienced any incidents.
Messenger and Abu Bakr arrived in Medina on 12 Rabi’ul Home. Arrival he expects the local government-Medina. Morning they congregate in the street, just after noon disperse them. That they hold a few days before the advent of the Prophet. In the coming days the Prophet and Abu Bakr, the community has been waiting berjubel Medina in the road that will be passed by the Prophet with a full squad drummer. They hail-mengelu Prophet and a thundering drum with a libretto that digubah intentionally for the purpose of the reception: “Moon was full moon appears in our midst, from the slit-slit bebukitan. Number we give thanks, ajakannya up to God. O people who are raised for us, you bring something be obeyed. ”
In the middle of travel to Medina, Rasu ¬ lullah layover in Quba, a village located two miles to the south Madmnah. There, he built a mosque and the Mosque is the first in the history of Islam. He layover in there for four days to pick the next trip to Medina. On Friday morning he departs from the Quba ‘and arrived in the village of Banu Salim bin auf exactly at the time of Friday prayers. Then he shalatlah there. This is the first Friday in Islam, and therefore it is the Sermon khutbahnya the petama.
Then the Prophet departs leaving Banu Salim. The first program he is sitting in Medina determine the place where the mosque will be built. The place is the place where the she-camel stop right in Medina. In fact, the land is owned by two orphans. To the Prophet both requested that willingly sell land it owns, but they prefer menghadiahkannya. But he still wants to pay the price of land is ten dinar. Happy with Abu Bakr give money to them.
Development will begin Mosque and all p took bagman, so that the mosque stands a brick wall, wooden stem korma and roofed leaf korma.
Then the Prophet unite the people with Muhajirin Anshar. Everyone Anshar Muhajirin people recognize as their own brethren News, mempersilakannya stay at home ¬ and utilize all its amenities in the house concerned.
Then the Prophet said. formulate the charter, which applies to all p, and the Jews. Charter is by Ibn Hisham as the constitutionality and the country’s first Islamic government. The contents include about humanity, social justice, religious tolerance, mutual cooperation for the good of the community, and others. Essence is as follows:
• Unity Islam, without know the difference.
• Equality and obligations.
• Gotong cooperate in all matters that do not include tyranny, sin, and hostility.
• Kompak in determining the relationship with the people who memusuhi people.
• Building a community in a system that properly, selurusnya and sekokoh-kokohnya.
• against those who memusuhi countries and rebel, without can provide assistance to them.
• protect every person who wants to live side by side with p, and can not do wrong or injustice against him.
• The people of the outside free of implementing Islamic religion. They can not be forced entry and Islam can not be disturbed property thing.
• The people of the outside Islam must take part in the country, as Islam itself.
• The people of non-Muslims must help shoulder the cost involved and the country is threatened in circumstances.
• The people of the outside of Islam, must help each other with Islam in the country and protect the enemy threat.
• State to protect all citizens, whether Muslim or not Muslim.
• of Muslims and Islam is not the enemy can not protect the country and those who help the enemies of the country.
• If a peace will bring good for the community, all citizens of both Muslim and non-Muslim, should willingly accept peace.
• A citizen can not be punished because the errors of others. The punishment on someone who is, can only be applied to the perpetrators themselves and their own families.
• citizens free entry exit regions of the country as far as not harming the country.
• Every citizen can not protect people who do wrong or do wrong.
• Association fellow members of the community based on the principle of mutual help and for the good rotation, not of the sin and enmity.
Basics is supported by the strength of the two. The spiritual strength that includes all members of the community of faith to God, faith will be monitoring and penlindungan His people for good and consistent, and the strength of the material that is the leadership of the country reflected by the Prophet Muhammad
B. Keteladanan messenger in the nation building in Medina
Once in Medina, he began building a nation with keteladanan, initial steps are:
1. Mempersaudaraan the Muhajirin and Anshor
In order to strengthen its Negima Islam in Medina, the Prophet Muhammad that Muslims unite with one another. In addition to the above purpose. It is also intended to increase Islam associa teguhnya and akrabnya relationship Muhajirin and Anshor. Dipersaudaraan by the example given by the messenger with the hands of Ali bin Talib and declare “This is my brother” after that, followed by each of them choose angkatnya own brother, as follows:
No Muhajirin Anshor
1 Abu Bakar bin Khrijah transmitted by Zuhair
2 Umar bin Malik bin Khatttab Itban
3 Bilal bin Rabah Abu Ruwaihah
4 Amir bin Sa’ad bin Abdillah Muadz
5 Abdul Rahman bin Sa’ad bin auf Rabi ‘
6 Zubair bin Salamah ibn Salamah Awwam
7 Uthman Aus bin Tsabit
8 Talhah bin Malik bin Ubaidillah Ka’ab
9 Abu Huzaifah bin Utbah Ubbah bin Bisyr
10 ammar bin Yasir Huzaifah bin Al-Yaman
2. Messenger heroism in the war lead
a. Badr war.
Heroism comes dafri word “officer” means the gallant brave. Heroism, courage means. Messenger in the war that some suitable objects, memeperlihatkan that the Messenger of Allah as a war commander gallant brave. Many examples of heroism in the war against the Messenger of unbelievers Quresy, such as the war in Badr, Uhud and the Trench.
War of Badr occurred on 17 Ramadan 2-year Hijarah coincides Jan. 8 623 CE. This war occurred near a property Badr wells, located between Mecca and Medina. Muslims numbering 314 people, while 1,000 people disbelieve Quresy complete with equipment. While Muslims with the weapons available.
Messenger strategy in the war Badr, with a water catchment, it is required of both parties. While the two teams faced each other, then suddenly heathen Quresy called Stone bin As’ad. He was to destroy the water catchment pond owned by Muslims, but this can be defeated by Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib Stone also killed and beaten with a sword.
War begins with a heap of war opponents from one side Quresy represented 3 people, namely: Utbah, Syaibah bin Walid Al-Rabiah and Utbah. From p, represented Ubaidah ibn Harits, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib. Then he The third hero is dead Quresy killed. Proceed with the carnage of war, with a strong faith that Muslims can win this war with the help of God.
b. Uhud war.
Uhud war in the mid Sha’ban months to three years Hijrah coincides with the January CE 625 years. War occurred in the mountain Uhud, the northern city of Medina. Therefore war is named Uhud War. This war happens because people want to reply to Quresy defeat in the War of Badr before.
Muslims berkuatan 700 people sedangakan people disbelieve Quresy berkuatan 3000. In this war Islam led by the Prophet Muhammad sedangan people Quresy led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, who accompanied his wife Hindun poet who has a good voice to the spirit and entertaining team. War begins with a heap of war opponents from one p, represented by Ali bin Abi Talib, Hamzah bin Abdul Muthalib, Sa, ad bin Abi Waqas and Ashim bin Tsabit. Quresy people represented by Musafi bin Talhah, Harits bin Talhah, Kilab bin Talhah and Jallas Talhah bin. In this duel all the heroes die Quresy killed, and after that a new war with the bulk.
At first, Muslims have been victorious and leave people disbelieving property caused by Muslims, especially troops from its warm down to share the loot property, postal Muslims empty, then Khalid bin Walid cavalry Quresy people get the opportunity to infiltrate Muslims Muslims kucar kacir. Finally, victory is now handled previous sirna caused by a disturbance that is the world’s wealth war booty, hands victory to move people Kafir Quresy.
For this war is a defeat:
1). Army arrows totaling 50 people obey the Messenger.
2) The existence of the nation Munafiq 300 people, led by Abdullah bin Ubay the reverse does not want war.
3) The occurrence of the difference between the old and young people about where the young want to battle outside the city, while older people want to survive in the city of Medina.
c. Trench warfare.
Trench warfare or Ahzah occurred in the month of Shawwal year 5 Hijrah, coincides with the March year 627 CE. War of the northern city of Medina. War is called the Trench (trench) because Muslims make ditch defense. Called “war ahzab” because people Quresy alliances with other residents who are around the city Mecca. Muslims and said as many as 3000 people sedangakan people Quresy berkekutan 10,000 people.
Dipinpin Muslims by the Prophet Muhammad Ali bin Abi accompanied Tahalib, while the nation Quresy led by Abu Sufyan. War is won by the Muslims with the means to survive in the trenches back ayau Trench. Drainage is the idea of a friendly messenger named Salman Al Pharisees a friend who came from the Persian Nobility rogue search for the truth.
3. Died Messenger
By the Messenger of Allah died when the pain became more severe, the Messenger-wife to ask the other to his wife stayed in the house she Siti binti Abu Bakar Shiddiq Ash, who led the Jamaah praying at the time of Abu Bakr Ash Shiddiq, conditions that make Muslims fear and worry, if -when the Prophet died. When the Prophet emergency Muslims know he would like to see them. With dipapah by Ali bin Abi Talib the Prophet said: “O mankind! I hear that you feel worried in case Nabimu died, have there a prophet who live forever? If no, then I will also live forever! I will meet God and you will menyusulku.
Messenger died on 12 Rabiul Awal Hijrah year to 11, coincides with the June 8 632 CE, after experiencing pain for 13 days in the age of 63 years, according to calculations tahunHijrah. He was improving in the House of Metallica she bint Abu Bakr and at kuburkan there, Among those who took his bath is: Abbas bin Abdul Muthalib, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Fadhal bin Abbas, Usama bin Zaid and Syuqran.
Reaction friend died when the Messenger of Allah, many of the friends and Muslims who do not believe that the Prophet Muhammad died, Umar ibn Khattab very angry at hearing news wafatnya Messenger, said: “There are people who have died Messenger of Allah! Indeed, by God, he did not die, just go mengahadap Lord, as the Prophet Moses also never went to the Lord. By Allah, the Messenger will be back. “But after Abu Bakr, confirming news kewafatan the Messenger of Allah, accompanied by the word of God read in the letter Ali Imran verse 144, so they just believe. Word of the diving is:
This means: “Muhammad is not only a messenger, have passed the previous several messengers. If whether he died or were killed ye turn back (apostate)? Anyone who turn to the back, then he can not bring mudharat iota to God, and God will reward those who give thanks “(Ali Imran: 144)
He left two heirlooms two inheritance will not be cracked by the heat and the rain will not be obsolete that the Al-Koran and the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad.